INTERAKSI BI-TROFIK KOMUNITAS SERANGGA TANAMAN KEDELAI DENGAN TIGA TEKNIK PENGELOLAAN HAMA DI NGAWI, JAWA TIMUR

Ciptadi Achmad Yusup, I Wayan Winasa, Purnama Hidayat
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Abstract

Serangga sebagai bagian dari struktur trofik pada ekosistem kedelai memiliki peran utama sebagai hama, musuh alami, dan juga sebagai dekomposer. Studi ini menekankan serangga sebagai hama kedelai dan sebagai musuh alami hama kedelai. Interaksi antara serangga hama dan musuh alaminya dipengaruhi oleh sistem budidaya tanaman, diantaranya pengendalian hama dengan menggunakan insektisida. Pada penelitian ini, tiga teknik pengelolaan hama, yaitu teknik pengelolaan hama campuran, kimiawi, dan versi petani dibandingkan untuk mempelajari pola interaksi antara serangga hama dan musuh alaminya. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Juni hingga September 2014 dengan beberapa metode seperti pengamatan langsung, penggunaan perangkap lubang jebakan dan jaring serangga. Penyusunan pola interaksi bi-trofik berdasarkan hasil pengamatan langsung dianalisis menggunakan software R. Statistic, sedangkan komposisi serangga dianalisis berdasarkan data serangga yang terkoleksi dari lubang perangkap dan jaring serangga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pola interaksi bi-trofik antara serangga hama dan musuh alaminya pada teknik pengelolaan hama kimiawi sedikit lebih renggang dibandingkan dengan dua teknik pengelolaan hama lainnya. Pola interaksi yang terbentuk menunjukkan bahwa kutukebul (Bemisia tabaci) merupakan serangga fitofag yang paling dominan, dan kumbang Menochillus sexmaculatus merupakan musuh alami yang paling dominan ditemukan di lahan kedelai. Teknik pengelolaan hama versi petani memiliki keanekaragaman serangga yang sedikit lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan dua perlakuan lainnya.

Keywords

Hama kedelai, insektisida, interaksi trofik, komposisi serangga, musuh alami

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