VOKALISASI BIOAKUSTIK TIKUS SAWAH (Rattus argentiventer Robinson and Kloss, 1916) PADA RENTANG SUARA TERDENGAR DI AGROEKOSISTEM SAWAH IRIGASI SUKAMANDI, SUBANG, JAWA BARAT

Agus Wahyana Anggara, Dedy Duryadi Solihin, Wasmen Manalu, Irzaman Irzaman
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Abstract

Indera pendengaran tikus sawah memiliki dua puncak tanggap akustik yaitu pada kisaran suara terdengar (frekuensi 20 Hz – 20 KHz) dan ultrasonik (>20 KHz). Kemampuan indera tersebut penting dalam menunjang aktivitas kehidupan tikus sawah sebagai hewan nokturnal. Penelitian eksploratif dilakukan untuk mengumpulkan dan menginventarisasi vokalisasi alami tikus sawah pada rentang suara terdengar dalam kondisi alami di lapangan sepanjang musim tanam padi. Vokalisasi yang diperoleh dimurnikan dan dikarakterisasi menggunakan perangkat lunak Cool Edit Pro 2.1, selanjutnya dibuat databasenya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tikus sawah pada kondisi alami di lapangan tidak setiap saat melantangkan vokalisasi bioakustik sepanjang musim tanam padi. Eksplorasi sepanjang musim tanam padi diperoleh 6 pola vokalisasi bioakustik yang dilantangkan tikus sawah pada saat pengolahan lahan, padi stadia anakan maksimum, bunting, dan berbunga, serta seminggu pascapanen. Vokalisasi bioakustik berdurasi singkat, rata-rata 12,41 detik (0,5-25,1 detik) dengan frekuensi dominan 1-2 kHz yang disertai frekuensi 5-9 kHz selama pelantangan. Taraf intensitas menunjukkan tingkat kebisingan suara berkisar 6,94-93,90 desibel (rata-rata 43,91 dB). Penelitian lanjutan diperlukan untuk mengetahui respon perilaku tikus sawah apabila dipaparkan vokalisasi tersebut.

Keywords

vokalisasi, bioakustik, tikus sawah, Rattus argentiventer

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