Muhammad Fakhri Fauzan, Achmad Farajallah, Amir Hamidy
| Abstract views: 193 | PDF views: 178


Leptobrachium from Southeast Asian populations previously were recognized as a single species
Leptobrachium hasseltii Tschudi. Taxonomic reassessment revealed that Leptobrachium consists of some
cryptic species due to similarities in their morphological appearance but diverse in molecular characters.
Among the Indonesian populations, Leptobrachium was split into seven species (L. hasseltii, L. nigrops,
L. waysepuntiense, L. hendricksoni, L. ingeri, L. abbotti, and L. montanum). Specifically, L. hasseltii is
separated into two groups; the Sumatran-Javan and the Bali populations. In this study, we analyzed the
morphological data of 100 individuals of Leptobrachium to evaluate their morphological differences.
The morphological differences expressed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component
analysis (PCA) revealed significant differences between each Leptobrachium and four morphological
characters suitable for species identification (the iris color, color pattern, humeral and femoral gland).
The morphological differences also showed that the Bali population probably is undescribed species.


amphibia; ANOVA; identification; litter frog; morphometry; PCA

Full Text:



Berry, P.Y. & Hendrickson J.R. 1963. Leptobrachium nigrops, a new pelobatid frog from the Malay

Peninsula, with remarks on the genus Leptobrachium in southeastern Asia. Copeia, 1963 (4): 643–648.

Berry, P.Y. 1975 The Amphibian Fauna of Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Press, Kuala Lumpur. x+130 pp.

Brown, R.M. & Guttman, S.I. 2002. Phylogenetic systematics of the Rana signata complex of Philippine and Bornean stream frogs: Reconsideration of Huxley’s modification of Wallace’s Line at the Oriental-Australian faunal zone interface. Biological Journal of the Linnean. Society, 76: 393–461.

Brown, R. M., Siler C. D., Diesmos A. C., & Alcala A. C. 2009. Philippine frogs of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura; Megophryidae): phylogeny-based species delimitation, taxonomic review, and descriptions of three new species. Herpetological Monographs, 23(1): 1–44.

Cochran, D.M. 1926. A new pelobatid frog from Borneo. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 16: 446–447.

Dubois, A. & Ohler, A. 1998. A new species of Leptobrachium Vibrissaphora) from northern Vietnam, with a review of the taxonomy of the genus Leptobrachium (Pelobatidae, Megophryinae). Dumerilia, 4: 1–32.

Duellman, W.E. 1978. The biology of an equatorian herpetofauna in Amazonian Ecuador. Miscellaneous publications of the Natural History Museum of the University of Kansas,. 65: 1–352.

Emerson, S.B., Inger, R.F. & Iskandar, D. 2000. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the fanged frogs of Southeast Asia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 16: 131–142.

Fei, L., Hu, S-Q., Ye, C-Y. & Huang, Y-Z. 2009. Fauna Sinica, Amphibia vol.2- Anura, Science Pres. Beijing.

Fischer, J.G. 1885. Ueber eine Kollektion von Amphibien und Reptilien aus Südost-Borneo. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 51 : 41–72.

Frost, D. R. 2022. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (accessed on 01 June 2023). Electronic Database accessible at American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

Glaw, F. & Vences, M. 1997. A review of anuran eye colouration: definitions, taxonomic implications and possible functions. pp. 125–138 in: Böhme W., Bischoff W. & T. Ziegler (eds.): Herpetologica Bonnensis. Societas Herpetologica Europaea, Bonn, Germany.

Hamidy, A. & Matsui, M. 2010. A new species of blue-eyed Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa, 2395:, 34–44.

Hamidy, A., Matsui, M., Nishikawa, K. & Belabut, D. 2012. Detection of cryptic taxa in Leptobrachium nigrops (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae), with description of two new species. Zootaxa, 3398: 22–39.

Hamidy, A. & Matsui, M. 2017. Phylogenetic relationships of Leptobrachium hasseltii Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)- Detection of a possible cryptic species. Treubia, 44: 15–28.

Inger, R.F. 1954. Systematics and zoogeography of Philippine Amphibia. Fieldiana: Zoology, 33: 183–531.

Inger, R.F. 1966. The systematics and zoogeography of the Amphibia of Borneo. Fieldiana: Zoology, 52: 1–402.

Inger, R.F., Stuebing, R.B. & Tan, F.-L. 1995. New species and new records of anurans from Borneo. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 43: 115–131.

Inger, R.F. & Voris, H. 2001. The biogeographical relations of the frogs and snakes of Sundaland. Journal of Biogeography, 28: 863–891.

Iskandar, D.T. 1998, The Amphibians of Java and Bali. Research and Development Center for Biology- Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bogor, 117 pp.

Lathrop, A., Murphy, R.W., Orlov, N.L. & Ho, C.T. 1998. Two new species ofLeptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the central highlands of Vietnamwith a redescription of Leptobrachium chapaense. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 5: 51–60.

Liu, C.C. 1945. New frogs from West China. Journal of West China Border Research Society, . 15: 28–43.

Matsui, M. 1984. Morphometric variation analysis and revision of the Japanese toads (genus Bufo, Bufonidae). Contributions from the Biological Laboratory, Kyoto University. 26, 209–428.

Matsui, M., Nabhitabhata, J. & Panha, S. 1999. On Leptobrachium from Thailand with a description of a new species (Anura: Pelobatidae). Japanese Journal of Herpetology, 18: 19–29.

Matsui, M., Tominaga, A., Liu, W.-Z., Khonsue, W., Grismer, L.L., Diesmos, A.C., Das, I.,Sudin, A., Yambun, P., Yong, H.-S., Sukumaran, J. & Brown, R.M. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships of Ansonia from Southeast Asia inferred frommitochondrial DNA sequences: systematic and biogeographic

implications (Anura: Bufonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54: 561–570.

McKay, J.L. 2006. A Field Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Bali. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.

Nesty, R., Tjong. D.H & Herwina H. 2013. Studi morfometrik kodok Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider 1799 (Anura: Bufonidae) di Sumatera Barat. Jurnal Biologi Universitas Andalas.

Ohler, A., Teynie, L. A. & David, P. 2004. A green-eyed Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from southern Laos. Raffles Bulletin ofZoology, 52: 695–700.

Rao, D.Q. & Wilkinson, J.A. 2008. Phylogenetic Relationship of the Mustache Toads Inferred from mtDNA Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46: 61–73.

R Core Team. 2020. R : A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for StatisticalComputing, Vienna. (Accessed 20 July 2023).

Riyanto, A., Mumpuni & McGuire, A.J. 2010. Morphometry of striped tree frogs, Polypedates Leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1829) from Indonesia with description of a new species. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 18: 29–35.

Taylor, E.H. 1962. The amphibian fauna of Thailand. University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 43: 265–599.

Tschudi, J.J. 1838. Classification der Batrachier, mit Berücksichtigung der Fossilen Thiere dieser Abtheilung der Reptilien. Neuchâtel, Petitpierre: i-ii + 1-98, pp. 1-6.

Winter, H.G. 1988: Farbungund Zeichnung. - I n : KLEWEN, R.: Die Landsalamander Europas, Teil I. - Die Neue Brehm Bucherei, Wittenberg Lutherstadt (A. Ziemsen Verlag). pp. 54–55.

Zheng, Y.C., Li, S.Q. & Fu, J.Z. 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of the frog genera Vibrissaphora and Leptobrachium, and the correlated evolution of nuptial spine and reversed sexual size dimorphism. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution,. 46: 695–707.

Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Fakhri Fauzan, Achmad Farajallah, Amir Hamidy


  • There are currently no refbacks.