ASSESSING IN-SITU SEMI-NATURAL BUTTERFLY BREEDING APPROACH OF ORNITHOPTERA CROESUS (PAPILIONIDAE) ON BACAN ISLAND, MALUKU UTARA, INDONESIA

Djunijanti Peggie, Duncan Neville, Sarino Sarino, Sih Kahono
| Abstract views: 116 | PDF views: 182

Abstract

Indonesia is rich in endemic species of flora and fauna. One of them is Ornithoptera croesus butterfly, which is endemic to North Maluku. Habitat degradation and trade of this species have caused the populations to decline. To avoid the collection of butterfly specimens from nature and to preserve their habitat and population in nature, a semi-natural butterfly breeding practice at Bacan Island was initiated in 2013. This research was conducted to assess the breeding approach for O. croesus lydius using a qualitative descriptive method. The assessment was based on these variables: the specific ecology of the butterfly; the suitability of the breeding site and development model; the utilization of larval host plants and butterfly nectar plants; and the establishment of the birdwing population at the site. The observations and results are presented here. Based on the assessment, the in-situ semi-natural breeding approach is one of the solutions for sustainable use of this protected species.

 


Keywords

birdwing butterfly, breeding, conservation, Ornithoptera croesus, sustainable use

Full Text:

PDF

References

Bernays, E.A. 1992. Interaction of insects and plants. Sci. Progress Oxford, 76: 247–271.

BKSDA (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam). 1999. Peraturan Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan. http://ksdae.menlhk.go.id/assets/uploads/ Lampiran-PP-Nomor-7-Tahun-1999.

Böhm, M. 2018. Ornithoptera croesus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T15517A727365. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T15517A727365.en. Downloaded on 4 June 2021. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/15517/727365

Borges, R.M., Gowda, V. & Zacharias, M. 2003. Butterfly pollination and high-contrast visual signals in a low-density distylous plant. Oecologia, 136: 571–573.

Borror D, Triplehorn, C.H. & Johnson, N.F. 1996. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Ohio [US]: Saunders College Publishing.

CITES. 2020. CITES Trade Data Base. Available at: http://trade.cites.org/. UNEP-WCMC. Accessed 2 June 2021.

Claβen-Backhoff, R. 1996. A survey of flower-like inflorescences in the Rubiaceae. E. Robbrecht, C. Puff & E. Smets, eds. Second International Rubiaceae Conference Proceedings, Opera Botanica Belgica, 7: 329–367.

Collins, N.M. & Morris, M.G. 1985. Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World – The IUCN Red Data Book. Switzerland: Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources: 401 pp + pls.

Condamine, F., Toussaint, E., Clamens, A-L., Genson, G., Sperling, F. & Kergoat, G. 2015. Deciphering the evolution of birdwing butterflies 150 years after Alfred Russel Wallace. Scientific Reports, 5. 11860. 10.1038/srep11860.

Curtis R.J., Brereton, T.M., Dennis, R.L.H., Carbone, C. & Isaac, N.J.B. 2015. Butterfly abundance is determined by food availability and is mediated by species traits. Journal of Applied Ecology, 52 (6): 1676–1684. 10.1111/1365-2664.12523

D’Abrera.1990. Butterflies of the Australian Region. Third (revised) edition. Melbourne: Hill House: 416 pp.

Daniels, J.C., Hill, G.M., Rossetti, K.A., Sanchez, S.J. & Hornfeldt, J.A. 2020. At-risk butterfly captive propagation programs to enhance life history knowledge and effective ex situ conservation techniques. J. Vis. Exp., (156), e60591, doi:10.3791/60591

Endo, T. & Ueda, K. 2004. A Complete Guide to the Endangered Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. Japan: Tokyo: Endless Science Information: 100 pp.

Feeny, P., Rosenberry, L. & Carter, M. 1983. Chemical aspects of oviposition behavior in butterflies. In: S. Ahmad, ed. Herbivorous Insects: Host-Seeking Behavior and Mechanisms, Academic Press: pp. 27–76. 10.1016/B978-0-12-045580-5.50007-0.

Ferrer-Paris J.R., Sanchez-Mercado, A., Viloria, A.L. & Donaldson, J. 2013. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels. PLoS ONE, 8(5): 1–15.

Igarashi, S. & Fukuda, H. 1997. The Life Histories of Asian Butterflies. Vol. 1. Japan: Tokyo: Tokai University Press: pl. 304.

Igarashi, S. & Fukuda, H. 2000. The Life Histories of Asian Butterflies. Vol. 2. Japan: Tokyo: Tokai University Press: pp. 305–306, pl. 10.

Jermy, T. 1984. Evolution of insect/host plant relationships. The American Naturalist, 124(5): 609–630. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2461372

KLHK. 2018. Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Republik Indonesia, Nomor P.106/MENLHK/setjen/Kum.1/12/2018. tentang perubahan kedua atas Peraturan Menteri LHK Nomor P.20/MENLHK/setjen/Kum.1/6/2018 tentang jenis tumbuhan dan satwa yang dilindungi.

Laurance, W.F., Pérez-Salicrup, D., Delamônica, P., Fearnside, P.M., D'Angelo, S., Jerozolinski, A., Pohl, L. & Lovejoy, T.E. 2001. Rain forest fragmentation and the structure of Amazonian liana communities. Ecology, 82(1): 105–116.

Mas’ud A., Hasan, S. & Abdullah, A. 2016. Diversity of butterfly family Papilionidae (Papilio ulysses and Ornithoptera croesus) on altitudinal stages of conserved forest of Mount Sibela, Bacan Island. Proceeding of National Seminar on Biodiversity VI, Surabaya 3 September 2016, pp. 239–245 (translated).

Matsuka, H. 2001. Natural History of Birdwing Butterflies. Tokyo: Matsuka Shuppan.

Nacua, A.E., Clemente, K.J., Macalalad, E.P., Galvez, M.C., Belo, L.P., Orbecido, A.H., Custer C. Deocaris, C.C. 2020. Butterflies behaviors and their natural enemies and predators in Manila, Philippines. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, 9(2): 240–245.

Naiki, A. 2008. Breeding system in Mussaenda shikokiana (Rubiaceae). Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History, (62): 21–26.

Naiki, A. & Kato, M. 1999. Pollination system and evolution of dioecy from distyly in Mussaenda parviflora (Rubiaceae). Plant Species Biology, 14: 217–227.

Nakamura Y. 2011. Conservation of butterflies in Japan: status, actions and strategy. J Insect Conserv., 15: 5–22.

Neville, D. 1993. Butterfly farming as a conservation tool, Lessons learnt during implementation of butterfly farming in the Arfak Mountains, Irian Jaya. Presented at the International Butterfly Conference, Ujung Pandang, pp. 24–27.

New, T.R. & Collins, N.M. 1991. Swallowtail Butterflies: An Action Plan for Their Conservation. Switzerland: Gland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources/Species Survival Commission Lepidoptera Specialist Group.

Parsons, M. 1999. The Butterflies of Papua New Guinea. Their Systematics and Biology. San Diego: Academic Press: 736 pp.

Peggie, D. 2011. Precious and Protected Indonesian Butterflies. Bogor: Nagao NEF & Pusat Penelitian Biologi: 72 pp.

Peggie, D. 2014. Mengenal Kupu-kupu. Jakarta: Pandu Aksara Publishing: 78 pp.

Peggie, D., A. Rawlins & R.I. Vane-Wright. 2005. An illustrated checklist of the papilionid butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) of northern and central Maluku, Indonesia. Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo (NEVA), N.F. 26 (1/2), 41–60.

Sands, D.P.A. & New, T.R. 2013. Conservation of the Richmond Birdwing Butterfly in Australia. Dordrecht: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7170-3_1

Santhosh S. & Basavarajappa, S. 2017. Record of natural enemies of few butterfly species amidst agriculture ecosystems of Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka, India. Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences 2(5): 18–31. DOI - 10.26479/2017.0205.02

Schultz, C., Russell, C. & Wynn, L. 2008. Restoration, reintroduction, and captive propagation for at-risk butterflies: A review of British and American conservation efforts. Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution, 54: 41–61. 10.1560/IJEE.54.1.41.

Soehartono, T. & Mardiastuti, A. 2002. CITES Implementation in Indonesia. Nagao Natural Environment Foundation: 373 pp.

Van Dyck H., Van Strien A.J., Maes, D. & Van Swaay, C. 2009. Declines in common, widespread butterflies in a landscape under intense human use. Conserv. Biol., 23: 957–965.

Van Swaay C., Warren, M. & Loı¨s, G. 2005. Biotope use and trends of European butterflies. J Insect Conserv., 10: 189–209.

Vinson, S.B. 1998. The general host selection behavior of parasitoid Hymenoptera and a comparison of initial strategies utilized by larvaphagous and oophagous species. Biological Control, 11(2): 79–96.

Wang, Z., Huang, Y. & Pierce, N.E. 2019. Radio telemetry helps record the dispersal patterns of birdwing butterflies in mountainous habitats: Golden Birdwing (Troides aeacus) as an example. Journal of Insect Conservation. 23. 10.1007/s10841-019-00167-5.

Whitworth A., Huarcaya, R.P., Mercado, H.G., Braunholtz, L.D. & MacLeod, R. 2018. Food for thought. Rainforest carrion-feeding butterflies are more sensitive indicators of disturbance history than fruit feeders. Biological Conservation, 217: 383–390.

Yao, T.L. 2015. Aristolochiaceae. In: R. Kiew, R.C.K. Chung, L.G. Saw & E. Soepadmo, eds. Flora of Peninsular Malaysia. Selangor, Malaysia: Forest Research Institute Malaysia: pp. 5–46.

Copyright (c) 2021 Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.