VARIATION IN THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF NATURAL LOWLAND FORESTS AT BODOGOL, GUNUNG GEDE PANGRANGO NATIONAL PARK, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

Asep Sadili, Andi Salamah, Edi Mirmanto, Kuswata Kartawinata
| Abstract views: 1066 | PDF views: 428

Abstract

An analysis of the composition and structure of lowland natural forests was carried out in Bodogol, Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park (GGPNP). The two study plots (P1CS and P2CS) were located on Cisuren and one plot (P3CP) on Cipadaranten hill. We recorded 107 species and 48 families with an average basal area of 19.73 m2/ha, and an average density of 348 trees/ha. The species richness was poorer than those of the typical lowland rainforests of Kalimantan and Sumatra but comparable to those of the montane forests of Java. The IUCN-Red Listed species were Castanopsis argentea and Castanopsis tungurrut (critical) and Saurauia bracteosa (vulnerable). Based on the two dominant species, the forests can be designated as the Maesopsis eminii-Syzygium acuminatissimum association and Syzygium acuminatissimum-Lithocarpus korthalsii association. Maesopsis eminii was dominant in P1CS (IV= 56.46%) and P3CP (IV=55.94%), while Syzygium acuminatissimum in P2CS (IV= 43.67%). Maesopsis eminii was a strongly aggressive and invasive species, that endangered the purity of the natural forest GGPNP, therefore, it must be eradicated. Vertically, P2CS and P3CP consisted of four strata, while P1CS had three strata. This one-hectare study can be considered as a minimal area to reflect the floristic representation of lowland forest and submontane forest.

Keywords

Association, forest structure, Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park, lowland forests, minimal area, species composition, species richness.

Full Text:

PDF

References

ABDULHADI, R., SRIJANTO, A. & KARTAWINATA, K. 1998. Composition, structure, and changes in a montane rain forest at the Cibodas Biosphere Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. In: DALLMEIER, F. & COMISKEY, J.A. (Eds.). Forest Biodiversity Research, Monitoring And Modeling. Conceptual Background And Old World Case Studies. Man And The Biosphere Series 20: 601-612.

ANDILA, P.S. & WARSENO, T. 2019. Study potential of kayu suji (Dracaena Angustifolia) As A Medicine: A Review. Widya Biologi 10 (2): 148-158.

ARRIJANI, SETIADI, D., GUHARDJA, E. & QAYIM. I. 2006. Analisis vegetasi hulu DAS Cianjur Taman Nasional Gunung Gede-Pangrango. Biodiversitas 7(2): 147-153.

ARRIJANI. 2008. Struktur dan komposisi vegetasi Zona Montana Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango. Biodiversitas 9(2): 134-141.

ASHTON, P.S. 1965. Some problems arising in the sampling of mixed rain forest communities for floristic studies. In Symposium on Ecological Research in Humid Tropics Vegetation (1963). Sponsored by Gov. of Sarawak and UNESCO Science Cooper. Office for SE Asia, Tokyo Press Co. Ltd., Itabashi, Tokyo. Pp 235–240.

BACKER, C.A. & BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK, JR. R.C. 1963 - 1968. Flora of Java. Vol. 1-3. N.V.P . Noordhoff. Groningen.

BLOEMBERGEN, S. 1952. A critical study in the complex-polymorphous genus Schima (Theaceae). Reinwardtia 2: 133-183.

CONNELL, J.H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs - high diversity of trees and corals is maintained only in a non-equilibrium state. Science 199: 1302–1310

COX, W.G. 1967. Laboratory Manual of General Ecology. 7th ed. Dubuque. Wm. C. Brown Publishing Ltd. Co.

DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN, W.M. 1933. Biology of plants and animals occurring in the higher parts of Mount Pangrango-Gede in West Java. Verh. Kon.Akad. Wet. A’dam, afd. II, 31: 1-278.

DJARWANINGSIH, T., SUPRIATNA, A. & AMIR, M. 2010. Flora Cagar Alam Gunung Tukung Gede, Serang-Banten. Jakarta. LIPI press.

EFENDI, M., CAHYANTO, T., & RAMDAN, D.M. 2022. Keanekaragaman tumbuhan berbiji di Cagar Alam Gunung Tilu. Jawa Barat. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan & Konservasi Alam 19 (1): 1-31

GREIG-SMITH, P. 1983. Quantitative Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publication. Oxford,

GUNAWAN, W., S. BASUNI, S., INDRAWAN, A., PRASETYO, L.B. & SOEDJITO, H. 2011. Analysis of vegetation structure and composition toward restoration efforts of Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park. Journal Of Natural Resources And Environmental Management 1 (2): 93-105.

HELMI, N., KARTAWINATA, K., SAMSOEDIN, I. 2009. An undescribed lowland natural forest at Bodogol, at the Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park, Cibodas Biosphere Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 13: 33-44

HILWAN, I. & RAHMAN, S.N.A. 2021. Penyebaran jenis puspa (Schima wallichii (Dc.) Korth) di Resort Kawah Ratu, Taman Nasional Halimun Salak, Jawa Barat. J. SilvikulturTropika 12(2): 86-94

ISMAIL, ERMAYANTI & HASIBUAN, H. 2000. Studi keanekaragaman flora di kawasan Pusat Pendidikan Konservasi Alam (PPKAB), Taman Nasional Gunung Gede-Pangrango. In: WAHYONO, E.H. & ARIO, A (Eds.), Flora and Fauna: An inventory and Research Technical Practice in Bodogol Center of Education and Conservation. Taman Nasional Gunung Gede-Pangrango & Conservation International Indonesia Programme, Jakarta.

ISTOMO & SARI, P.N. 2019. Penyebaran dan karakteristik habitat jenis rasamala (Altingia excelsa Noronha) di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun Salak. Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management 9 (3): 608-625.

JUNAEDI, D.I., HANDAYANI, A., SUHENDRI, Y., & RUSTANDI. 2020. Sub-population survey of Dipterocarpus Retusus Bl. In Mount Gede Pangrango National Park. Prosiding Earth And Environmental Science. IOP Publishing Doi:10.1088/1755-1315/457/1/012003.

JUNGHUHN, F. 1845. Streifzüge Durch Die Waldgebirge G. Panggerango, Manellawangie, Und Gedé. Unternommen Im Jahre 1839. Topographische Und Natur Wissenschaftliche Reisen Durch Java: 412. Magdeburg. Baensch, 1845.

KARTAWINATA, K. 1977. Structure and composition of the forest in some nature reserves in West Java, Indonesia. Proceedings of 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver, Canada-1975. 59-68.

KARTAWINATA, K., SAMSOEDIN, I., HERIYANTO, M.N. & AFRIASTINI, J.J. 2004. A tree species inventory in a one-hectare plot at the Batang Gadis National Park, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (2): 145-157.

KARTAWINATA, K., PURWANINGSIH, PARTOMIHARDJO, T., YUSUF, R., ABDULHADI, R. & RISWAN, S. 2008. Floristics and structure of a lowland dipterocarp forest at Wanariset Samboja, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (4): 301– 323

KARTAWINATA, K. 2013. Diversitas ekosistem alami Indonesia. Yayasan Obor & LIPI Press. Jakarta.

KARTAWINATA, K. & SUDARMONOWATI, E. 2022. Ekologi vegetasi alami cagar biosfer Cibodas. Komite Nasional Mab Indonesia – BRIN. In press

KERSHAW, K.A. 1964. Quantitative and dynamic ecology. Edward Arnold Publishing Co. Ltd. London.

LUDWIG, J.A. & REYNOLDS, J.F. 1988. Statistical ecology: a primer on methods and computing. Wiley-Interscience Pub. New York.

MAY, R.J., LAWTON, J. & STORK, N. 1995. Extinction rates. In: LAWTON, J. & MAY, R. (Eds.), Oxford. University Press. Oxford. Pp: 1-24.

MEIJER, W. 1959. Plant sociological analysis of montane rain forest near Tjibodas, West Java. Acta Bot. Neerl. 8: 277-291.

MIRMANTO, E. 2014. Fitososiologi hutan pegunungan di lereng tenggara Gunung Salak. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 10 (1): 27-38

MUELLER-DOMBOIS, D. & ELLENBERG, H. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

MUELLER-DOMBOIS, D. & ELLENBERG, H. 2016 . Ekologi vegetasi: tujuan dan metode (alih Bahasa) KARTAWINATA, K. & ABDULHADI, R, LIPI Press & Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, Jakarta.

OGAWA, H., YODA, K., OGINO, T., SHIDEI, D., RATNAWONGSE & APA SUTAYA, C. 1965. Comparative ecological study on three main types in S.E. Asia of forest vegetation in Thailand. structure and floristic composition. Nat.& Life, 4: 13-48.

OOSTING, H.J. 1956. The study of plant communities–an introduction to plant ecology. Second Edition. San Francisco and London: W.H. Freeman and Company.

PIMM, S. & RAVEN, P. 2000. Species-area curves, spatial aggregation, and habitat specialization in tropical forests. In: PLOTKIN, J. B., POTTS, M. D., LESLIE, N., MANOKARAN, N., LAFRANKIE, J. & ASHTON. P.S. (Eds). Extinction by numbers Nature 403: 843-845.

PURWANINGSIH, 2004. Sebaran ekologi Dipterocarpaceae di Indonesia. Biodiversitas 5 (2): 89-95

PURWANINGSIH & YUSUF, R. 2008. Analisa vegetasi hutan pegunungan di Taman Nasional Gunung Ciremai, Majalengka, Jawa Barat. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 4 (5): 385-399

PURWANINGSIH & POLOSAKAN. R. 2016. Keanekaragaman jenis dan sebaran Fagaceae di Indonesia. Ethos (Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pengabdian Masyarakat): 85-92

PURWANINGSIH, POLOSOKAN, R., YUSUF, R. & KARTAWINATA, K. 2017. Phytosociological study of the montane forest on the south slope of Mt. Wilis, East Java. Indonesia. Reinwardtia 16 (1): 31-45.

RAHMAH, KARTAWINATA, K., NISYAWATI, WARDHANA, W. & NURDIN, E. 2016. Tree species diversity in the lowland forest of the core zone of the Bukit Dua Belas National Park, Jambi, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 15 (1): 11 - 26.

RISWAN, S. 1987. Structure and floristic composition of a mixed Dipterocarp forest. at Lempake, East Kalimantan. In: Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (ed). Proceedings Of The Third Round Table Conference On Dipterocarps. Universitas Mulawarman Samarinda, 16-20.

ROLLET, B., SUKARDJO, S. & NOERTA. 1976. Preliminary analysis of a survey in the lower montane rainforest of Cibodas. Unesco Regional Office For Science And Technology For South East Asia, Jakarta (Unpublished Report).

ROZAK, A.H., ASTUTIK, S., MUTAQIEN, Z., WIDYATMOKO, D. & SULISTYAWATI, E. 2016. Kekayaan jenis pohon di hutan Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango, Jawa Barat. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam 13 (1): 1-14

SADILI, A., KARTAWINATA, K., KARTONEGORO, A., SOEDJITO, H. & SUMADIJAYA, A. 2008. Floristic composition and structure of subalpine summit habitats on mt. Gede-Pangrango complex, Cibodas Biosphere Reserve, West Java, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 12 (5): 391–404.

SADILI, A. & ALHAMD, L. 2012. Struktur dan komposisi tumbuhan pada hutan rasamala (Altingia excelsa Noronha) di Bodogol, Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango, Jawa Barat. J. Tek. Ling (Edisi Khusus “Hari Bumi”); 61–66.

SADILI, A. 2014. Dinamika vegetasi pada petak permanen rasamala (Altingia Excelsa Noronha) Bodogol, Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango, Jawa Barat. Jurnal Biologi Indonesia 10 (1): 1-9.

SADILI, A. KARTAWINATA, K., SOEDJITO, H. & SAMBAS, E.N. 2018. Tree species diversity in a pristine montane forest previously untouched by human activities in Foja Mountains, Papua, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 17 (2): 133-154.

SAMSOEDIN, I., SUKIMAN, H., WARDANI M., & HERIYANTO, N.M. 2016. Pendugaan biomassa dan kandungan karbon kayu afrika. di Kabupaten Sukabumi. Jawa Barat. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman 13 (1): 73-81

SCHABEL, H.G. & LATIFF. 1997. Maesopsis eminii Engler. In: FARIDAH HANUM I & MADSEN L.J.G. VAN DER (Eds.), Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxiliary plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands. Pp. 184-187.

SEIFRIZ, W. 1923. The altitudinal distribution of plants on Mt. Gedeh, West Java. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 50: 283–306.

SEIFRIZ, W. 1924. The altitudinal distribution of Lichens and Moses on Mt. Gedeh, Java. J. Ecol: 12: 307.

SHEIL, D. & BURSLEM, D.F.R.P. 2003. Disturbing hypotheses in tropical forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18: 18–26

SHEIL, D., KARTAWINATA, K., SAMSOEDIN, I., PRIYADI, H. & AFRIASTINI, J.J. 2010. The lowland forest tree community in Malinau, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo): Results from a one-hectare plot. Plant Ecology and Diversity 3: 59-66.

SLIK, J.W.F., BERNARD, C.S., BREMAN, F.C., BEEK, M. VAN, SALIM, A. & SHEIL, D. 2008. Wood density as a conservation tool: quantification of disturbance and identification of conservation priority areas in tropical forests. Conservation Biology 22: 1299–1308.

SRIJANTO, A. 1987. Pengaruh rumpang terhadap permudaan alam dan struktur tegakan di hutan hujan tropika pegunungan. Fakultas Pasca Sarjana, IPB. Bogor. [Thesis].

STEENIS, C.G.G.J. van & SCHIPPERS-LAMMERTSE, A.F. 1965. Concise plant geography of Java. In: BACKER C.A. & BAKHUIZEN VAN DEN BRINK Jr, R.C. Flora of Java, Vol. 2. Noordhoff, Groningen. Pp. 3-72.

STEENIS, C.G.G.J. van, HAMZAH, A. & TOHA, M. 1972. Mountain flora of Java. E.J. Brill, Leiden.

STEENIS, C.G.G.J. VAN, HAMZAH, A. & TOHA, M. 2006. Flora pegunungan Jawa. Penerjemah; KARTAWINATA, J.A., Pusat Penelitian Biologi-LIPI.

SUNARNO, B. & RUGAYAH. 1992. Flora Taman Nasional Gede Pangrango. Herbarium Bogoriense, Puslitbang Biologi – LIPI. Bogor.

SUNARYO, UJI, T. & TIHURUA, E.F. 2012. Jenis tumbuhan asing invasif mengancam ekosistem di Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango, Resort Bodogol, Jawa Barat. Berk. Hayati 17: 147–152.

SURYANTI, T. 2006 Ekologi lanskap dalam manajemen dan konservasi habitat owa Jawa (Hylobates moloch Audebert 1797) di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun. Universitas Indonesia. Depok. [Disertasi].

VINK, W. 1957. Hamamelidaceae. In: STEENIS, C.G.G.J. VAN (Eds.), Flora Malesiana I, 5: 363-379.

WIHERMANTO. 2004. Dispersi asosiasi dan status populasi tumbuhan terancam punah di zona sub montana dan montana Taman Nasional Gunung Gede-Pangrango. Biodiversitas 5 (1), 17-22.

YAMADA, I. 1975. Forest ecological studies of the mountain forest of Mt. Pangrango, West Java. I. Stratification and floristic composition of the montane rain forest near Cibodas. The Southeast Asian Studies 13: 402-426.

YAMADA, I. 1976a. Forest ecological studies of the mountain forest of Mt. Pangrango, West Java. II. Stratification and floristic composition of the forest vegetation of the higher part of Mt. Pangrango. The Southeast Asian Studies 13: 513-534.

YAMADA, I. 1976b. Forest ecological studies of the mountain forest of Mt. Pangrango, West Java. III. Litter fall of the tropical montane forest near Cibodas. The Southeast Asian Studies 14: 194-229.

YAMADA, I. 1977. Forest ecological studies of the mountain forest of Mt. Pangrango, West Java. IV. Floristic along the altitude. The Southeast Asian Studies 15: 226-254.

YUSUF, R. 2004. Keanekaragaman jenis pohon pada hutan terganggu di daerah koridor Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun. Berita Biologi 7 (1): 41-50.

ZUHRI, M. & MUTAQIEN, Z. 2011. Perubahan komposisi vegetasi dan struktur pohon pada plot Meijer (1959-2009) di Gunung Gede, Jawa Barat. Buletin Kebun Raya 14 (1): 37-45.

Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s)
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.