| Abstract views: 532 | PDF views: 451


LATIFAH, D., CONGDON, R. A. & HOLTUM, J. A. 2016. Growth responses of palm seedlings to different light intensities stimulating canopy gaps with an ecophysiological approach. Reinwardtia 15(2): 81 – 98. — Palms (Arecaceae) mainly grow in rainforests and many occur in disturbed areas like canopy gaps created by natural disturbances such as cyclones in Australia. Knowledge of seedling growth in different light intensities is essential to assist rainforest restoration in disturbed or marginal lands. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of different light intensities on the seedling growth of Arenga australasica (H. Wendl. & Drude) S. T. Blake ex H. E. Moore, Calamus australis Mart., C. moti F. M. Bailey, Hydriastele wendlandiana (F. Muell.) H. Wendl. & Drude and Licuala ramsayi (F. Muell.) H. Wendl. & Drude. Seedling growth experiments (pot trials) were conducted in a glass house using shade cloth providing four different levels of shading: 59, 29, 17 and 6% sunlight. The growth rate, leaf turnover, leaf area, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a:b ratio, vigor, above-ground and below-ground biomass and growth indices (LAR, SLA and LWR) of palm seedlings were measured. As a result of these measurements the relative shade tolerance of the five species was determined. The seedlings of Arenga australasica were classified as intermediate-shade intolerant species. Hydriastele wendlandiana seedlings were shade-intolerant. Calamus australis and C. moti seedlings are intermediate-shade intolerant. Licuala ramsayi seedlings were found to be a shade-tolerant.


Growth, light, palms, restoration, seedling.

Full Text:



ANDERSON, J. M., CHOW, W. S. & GOODCHILD, D. J. 1988. Thylakoid membrane organisation in sun/shade acclimation. In: EVANS, J. R., VON CAEMMERER, S. & ADAMS III, W. W. (Eds.). Ecology of Photosynthesis in Sun and Shade. CSIRO, Melbourne. Pp. 11–26.

ATWELL, B. J., KRIEDEMANN, P. E. & TURNBULL, C. G. N. 1999. Plants in Action: Adaptation in Nature, Performance in Cultivation. MacMillan Publishers Australia Pty Ltd., South Yarra.

BULLOCK, J. M. 2000. Gaps and seedling colonization. In: FENNER, M. (Ed.). Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities. 2nd edition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford. Pp. 375–395.

CHOW, W. S., QIAN, L., GOODCHILD, D. J. & ANDERSON, J. M. 1988. Photosynthetic acclimation of Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) G. Don to growth irradiance: structure, function and composition of chloroplasts. In: EVANS, J. R., VON CAEMMERER, S. & ADAMS III, W. W. (Eds.). Ecology of Photosynthesis in Sun and Shade. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. Pp. 107–122.

DOWE, J. L. 2009. A preliminary note on the impact of Cyclone Larry on Populations of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Arecaceae), North Queensland, Australia. Palms and Cycads 1: 4–8.

DRANSFIELD, J. 1979. A Manual of the Rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malaysian Forest Department, Kepong.

EVANS, G. C. & HUGHES, A. P. 1961. Plant growth and the aerial environment. I. Effect of artificial shading on Impatiens parviflora. New Phytologist 60: 150–180.

FRANGI, J. L. & LUGO, A. E. 1998. A flood plain palm forest in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico five years after Hurricane Hugo. Biotropica 30: 339–348.

GARDINER, E. S. & HODGES, J. D. 1998. Growth and biomass distribution of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings as influenced by light availability. Forest Ecology and Management 108: 127–134.

GASPERSZ, V. 1991. Research Design Methods for Agricultural, Engineering and Biological Sciences. Indonesian translation. CV ARMICO, Bandung.

GORMAN, R. M. 1996. Demographic trends in Licuala ramsayi (F. Muell.) Domin (Arecaceae), Tam O'Shanter State Forest, Mission Beach, North Queensland. Mooreana 6: 63–78.

HENDERSON, A. 2002. Evolution and Ecology of Palms. The New York Botanical Garden Press, New York.

LAMBERS, H., CHAPIN III, F. S. & PONS, T. L. 1998. Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer-verlag, New York.

LARCHER, W. 2003. Physiological Plant Ecology: Ecophysiology and Stress Physiology of Functional Groups. Fourth edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

LATIFAH, D., CONGDON, R. A. & HOLTUM, J. A. 2014. A physiological approach to conservation of four palm species: Arenga australasica, Calamus australis, Hydriastele wendlandiana and Licuala ramsayi. Reinwardtia 14(1): 237–247.

MANOKARAN, N. 1985. Biological and ecological considerations pertinent to the silviculture of rattans In: WONG, K. & MANOKARAN, N. (Eds.). Proceedings of the Rattan Seminar, 20-24 October 1984. The Rattan Information Center, Forest Research Institute, Kepong. Pp. 95–105.

MARR, I. L., SURYANA, N., LUKULAY, P. & MARR, M. I. 1995. Determination of chlorophyll a and b by simultaneous multi-component spectrophotometry. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry 352: 456–460.

McPHERSON, K. & WILLIAMS, K. 1998. The role of carbohydrate reserves in the growth, resilience, and persistence of cabbage palm seedlings (Sabal palmetto). Oecologia117: 460–468.

MILES, J. & SHEVLIN, M. 2001. Applying Regression and Correlation A Guide for Students and Researchers. Sage Publication Ltd. New York.

POORTER, L. & BOOT, R. G. A. 1998. Seedling growth of Bolivian rainforest tree species in relation to light and water availability http:// p.htm. Accessed on 30 August 2008. Thesis. El Programa Manejo de Bosques de la Amazonia Boliviana (PROMAB), Riberalta.

POPMA, J. & BONGERS, F. 1988. The effect of canopy gaps on growth and morphology of seedlings of rain forests species. Oecologia 75: 625–632.

RAVEN, P. H., EVERT, R. F. & EICHHORN, S. E. 1999. Biology of Plants. Sixth edition W. H. Freeman and Company, New York.

STEEL, R. G. D. & TORRIE, J. H. 1980. Principle and Procedure of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. Second Ed. McGraw Hill International Book Inc., Toronto.

TOMLINSON, P. B. 1990. The Structural Biology of Palms. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

TURTON, S. 2008. Cyclones Larry and Monica: ecological effects of two major disturbance events. Austral Ecology 33: 365–367.

WEBB, L. J. 1958. Cyclones as an ecological factor in tropical lowland rainforest, north Queensland. Australian Journal of Botany 6: 220–228.

Copyright (c) 2016 Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI)


  • There are currently no refbacks.