BIOLOGI BIJI GEWANG {Corypha utan Lamarck): KERAGAMAN KANDUNGAN EMBRIO, KIMIA DAN PERANAN MIKROBA DALAM PROSES PERKECAMBAHAN BIJI

BP Naiola, N Nurhidayaf
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Abstract

A laboratory study in 2007 on seed physiology of gewang/talipot palm {Corypha utan Lamarck) - by splitting down the seeds by liquid nitrogen technique, revealed that not all seeds - only 20% - bearing mature embryos. Those embryos are highly protected by robust endocarp and endosperm. A further study was done to reconfirm the previous result, found that seed bearing embryo from 3 different ecotypes of gewang in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) shows a relatively high diversity in seed bearing embryo originated from different ecotypes, ranging from 16 to 57%. Embryolessness seeds is assumed as due to the antagonistic interaction between GA, (gibberellic acid) and ABA (abscisic acid) during embryogenesis. Chemical content of seeds also shows relatively high in carbohaydrate and protein, while lipids were relatively low. Microbes identified as Fusarium and Bacillus was found in the surface of endocarp; Fusarium shows a more capability to decompose the endocarp of gewang seeds, thus allowed imbibition process, which lead to seed germination. Although Fusarium known as a soil borne disease for plants, their roles in endocarp/testa decomposition is important and needed by gewang to proceed seed germination. While the coming seedling of gewang may develop probably an internal resistance against Fusarium.

Keywords

Gewang, Corypha utan Lamarck, keragaman, kandungan embrio biji, Fusarium sp., savana NTT.

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