Opstaria Saptarini, Ismi Rahmawati
| Abstract views: 463 | PDF views: 356


Kaffir lime leaves essential oil has activity to inhibit bacterial growth. The mechanism of the inhibition is thought to be located in thebacterial cell wall. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial work location of kaffir lime leaf essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Kaffir lime leaves were distilled by steam distillation, essential oils obtained were identified by organoleptic quality, evaporation, solubility in alcohol, refractive index and specific gravity. The results were compared under with the literature. The results of essential oils were made with various concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.13, 1.56, 0.73, 0.39, and 0.20%. The results of the concentration series were tested for antibacterial activity with the macrodilution method followed by the determination for the location of bacterial growth inhibition using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The yield of kaffir lime leaf essential oil was 0.82%. The observation of organoleptic essential oil has a light yellow color, the distinctive odor of kaffir lime, a liquid form, and distinctive lime taste. Refractive index examination resulted 1.454; specific gravity 0.8317, and soluble in 70% ethanol with a ratio of 1:1. The Minimum BactericidalConcentration (MBC) obtained from the antibacterial activity test was 6.25%. Kaffir lime leaves essential oil mechanism occurred in the cell walls and cell membranes of Staphylococcus aureus.



Staphylococcus aureus, Essential Oil, Citrus hystrix.

Full Text:



Agouillal, F., Taher, Z.M., Moghrani, H., Nasrallah, N. and El-Enshasy, H., 2017. A Review of Genetic Taxonomy, Biomolecules Chemistry and Bioactivities of Citrus Hystrix DC. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia, 14(1).

Akiyoshi, S., Kenichi, A. and Toshiya S., 1990. The Chemical Composition of Citrus Hystrix DC (Swangi). Journal of Essential Oil Research, 2(4), pp. 179–183.

Ansel, H.C., 2006. Pengantar Bentuk Sediaan Farmasi. Edisi IV. Farida Ibrahim. Universitas Indonesia Press. Jakarta, pp. 605–608. Terjemahan dari: Introduction Forms Pharmaceutical Preparations.

Bagnoli, F., Rappuoli, R. and Grandi, G., 2017. Staphylococcus aureus Microbiology, Pathology, Immunology, Therapy and Prophylaxis. Springer International Publishing. New York City.

Boudjemaa, R., Steenkeste, K., Canette, A., Briandet, R., Fontaine-Aupart, M.P. and Marlière, C., 2019. Direct observation of the cell-wall remodeling in adhering Staphylococcus aureus 27217: An AFM study supported by SEM and TEM. The Cell Surface, 5(100018).

Burt, S., 2004. Essential Oils: Their Antibacterial Properties And Potential Applications In Foods – A Review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94(3), pp. 223–253.

CLSI. 2017. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 27th ed. CLSI supplement M100. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Pennsylvania.

Corner, D.E., 2003. Naturally Occuring Compounds in Antimicrobial in Food. Eds. Davidson PM and Branen AL. Eds. Marcel Dekker. New York.

Depkes RI., 1985. Cara Pembuatan Simplisia. Direktorat Jendral Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan. Jakarta.

Depkes RI., 2017. Farmakope Herbal Indonesia. Edisi II. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Jakarta.

Purwanto, D. S., & Astrawinata, D. 2018. Mekanisme Kompleks Sepsis dan Syok Septik. Jurnal Biomedik, 10(3).

Foster, T.J., Geoghegan, J.A., Ganesh, V.K. and Höök, M., 2014. Adhesion, invasion and evasion: the many functions of the surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 12(1), pp. 49–62.

Gebbie, K., Rosenstock, L. and Hernandez, L.M., 2003. Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century. The National Academies. Washington, D.C.

Geoghegan, J.A. and Foster, T.J., 2015. Cell Wall-Anchored Surface Proteins of Staphylococcus aureus: Many Proteins, Multiple Functions. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, pp. 95–120.

Greenwood, D. and O’Grady, F., 1972. Scanning Electron Microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus Exposed to Some Common Anti-staphylococcal Agents. Journal of General Microbiology, 70, pp. 263–270.

Guimarães, A.C., Meireles, L.M., Lemos, M.F., Guimarães, M., Endringer, D.C., Fronza, M. and Scherer, R., 2019. Antibacterial Activity of Terpenes and Terpenoids Present in Essential Oils. Molecules, 24(13), 2471.

Hojjati, M. and Barzegar, H., 2017. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Lemon (Citrus limon) Leaf Essential Oil. Nutrition and Food Sciences Research, 4(4), pp. 15–24. URL:

Irianto, K., 2014. Bakteriologi, Mikologi, dan Virologi: Panduan Medis & Klinis. Alfabeta. Bandung.

Jawetz, M. and Adelberg’s. 2016. Medical Microbiology. 27th ed. McGraw-Hill Education. New York

Kasuan, N., Yunus, M., Rahiman, M.H.F., Aris, S.R.S. and Taib, M.N., 2009. Essential oil composition of Kaffir lime: Comparative analysis between controlled steam distillation and hydrodistillation extraction process. IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD). Serdang. Pp. 479–482.

Kenzaka, T., Ishidoshiro, A., Tani, K. and Nasu, M., 2009. Scanning electron microscope imaging of bacteria based on DNA sequence. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 49, pp. 796–799.

Khasanah, L.U., Kawiji, Utami R. dan Aji, Y.M., 2015. Indonesian Food Technologists Pengaruh Perlakuan Pendahuluan Terhadap Karakteristik Mutu Minyak Atsiri Daun Jeruk Purut (Citrus hystrix DC). Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan, 4(2), pp. 48–55.

Munawaroh, S. dan Prima, A.H., 2010. Ekstraksi minyak daun jeruk purut (Citrus hystrix d.c.) dengan pelarut etanol dan n-heksana. Jurnal Kompetensi Teknik, 2(1), pp. 73–78.

Oliveira,D., Borges, A. and Simões, M., 2018. Review: Staphylococcus aureus toxins and their molecular activity in infectious diseases. Toxins, 10(6), p. 252.

Putra, R.E.D., Homenta, H. dan Worwor V.N.S., 2017. Uji Daya Hambat Perasan Buah Jeruk Purut Citrus hytrix Terhadap Bakteri Staphylococcus aureus Secara In Vitro. Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi-UNSRAT, pp. 2302–2493.

Radji, M., 2011. Mikrobiologi. Buku Kedokteran. EGC. Jakarta.

Suryaningrum, S., 2009, Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Minyak Atsiri Buah Jeruk Purut Terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Eschericia coli, Skripsi. Fakultas Farmasi. Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta. Surakarta.

Steven Y. C. Tong, Joshua S. Davis, Emily Eichenberger, Thomas L. Holland, Vance G. Fowler Jr., 2015. Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 28 (3) 603-661.

Syarifah, T., 2017. Ekstraksi Minyak Atsiri Dari Batang, Daun dan Kulit Jeruk Purut (Citrus hystrix DC) Dengan Metode Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction. Tesis. Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember. Surabaya.

Vazquez, V., Liang, X., Horndahl, J.K., Ganesh, V.K., Smeds, E. and Foster T.J., 2011. Fibrinogen is a ligand for the Staphylococcus aureus microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) bone sialoprotein-binding protein (Bbp). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(34), pp. 29797–805.

Victoria, F.N., Radatz, C.S., Sachini, M., Jacob, R.G., Alves, D., Savegnago, L. and Lenardão, E.J., 2012. Further analysis of the antimicrobial activity of α-phenylseleno citronellal and α-phenylseleno citronellol. Food Control, 23(1), pp. 95–99.

Vimol, S., Chanwit, T., Veena, N., Nuntavan, B., Kulkanya, C., Siwimol, P., Sirirat, C. and Somporn, S., 2012. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Citrus hystrix (makrut lime) against respiratory tract pathogens. Department of Food Chemistry. Faculty of Pharmacy. Mahidol University. Bangkok. Thailand.

Xue, L., Jiaxin, C., Haiming, C., Qiuping, Z., Yaqi, H., Weijun, C. and Wenxue, C., 2020. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of linalool against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Microbial Pathogenesis, 141, p.103980.

Widodo, S., 2005. Identifikasi hasil distilasi minyak Atsiri dari minyak bagian-bagian tanaman Jeruk Purut (Citrus hystrix D.C.). Tesis. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.


  • There are currently no refbacks.