Laksmindra Fitria, Rosita Dwi Putri Suranto, Indira Diah Utami, Septy Azizah Puspitasari
| Abstract views: 64 | PDF views: 51


Hairy fig is a tropical medium-sized tree that produces abundant fruits throughout the year. In some Asian countries, the fruits are consumed as traditional medicine and food ingredient. Meanwhile in Indonesia there has not been much use. A series of oral toxicity tests must be conducted to study the possibility of toxic effects and the safety before further exploration. Oral single dose toxicity study of young and ripe hairy fig fruit filtrate has been carried out. Results demonstrated no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) at a concentration of 100%. This study was aimed to continue the oral toxicity test with repeated dose following standard toxicity procedure by OECD Test Guideline No. 407 with some modifications. Parameters observed were mortality, sublethal effects consisted of physical conditions and behavior, body weight, core temperature, complete blood count, as well as liver, heart, and renal functions by measuring ALT, AST, and creatinine, respectively. Sampling points on day 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Results showed no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) in both young and ripe fruits filtrate at a concentration of 100% however with a tendency to cause anemia and associate with renal dysfunction. Therefore, it is necessary to perform similar method of toxicity test but with lower concentration, also continue with further toxicity tests (subchronic and chronic periods).




Ficus hispida, hairy fig, nutraceutical, oral toxicity studies, pharmaceutical, tropical fruit

Full Text:



Ali, M. and Chaudhary, N., 2011. Ficus hispida Linn: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedical properties. Pharmacognosy Review, 5(9), pp. 96–102 DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.79104

Awan, S.M., Alam, S.S. and Tariq, S., 2018. Effects of Ficus carica leaf and fruit extracts on cardiac enzymes in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Proceedings SZPGMI, 32(2), pp. 36–40 Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute.

Badgujar, S.B., Patel, V.V., Bandivdekar, A.H. and Mahajan, R.T. 2014. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus carica: A review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 52(11), pp. 1487–1503 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.892515

Berg, C.C., Corner, E.J.H. and Noteboom, H.P., 2005. Moraceae (Ficus). Flora Malesiana, Series 1-Seed Plants, Volume 17, Part 2. Nationaal Herbarium Nederland. Leiden, Netherlands.

Derelanko, M.J., 2008. The Toxicologist's Pocket Handbook. Second ed. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. New York.

Dorato, M.A. and Engelhardt, J.A., 2005. The no-observed-effect-level in drug safety evaluations: Use, issues, and definition(s). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 42, pp. 265–274.

Evans, G.O., 2009. Animal clinical chemistry: A practical guide for toxicologists and bio-medical researchers. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Fitria, L., Suranto, R.D.P. dan Utami, I.D., 2019. Uji toksisitas oral akut single dose filtrat buah luwingan (Ficus hispida L.f.) pada tikus (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) galur Wistar. Jurnal Mangifera Edu, 4(1), pp. 1–18 DOI: 10.31943/mangiferaedu. v4i1.39

Jangad, A.M.A. and Licardo, A.D.M.B., 2018. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of Lagnob (Ficus septica Burm. F. 1768) fruit extract on albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Thesis. University of San Carlos-Josef Baumgartner Learning Resource Center. Talamaban, Cebu City. Philipines.

Jothy, S.L., Zakaria, Z., Chen, Y., Lau, Y.L., Latha, L.Y. and Sasidharan, S., 2011. Acute oral toxicity of methanolic seed extract of Cassia fistula in mice. Molecules, 16(6), pp. 5268–5282.

Kehati. 2009. Jenis-jenis tanaman lokal dan endemik di wilayah Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta.

Pembangunan Taman Keanekaragaman hayati Provinsi DIY Tahun Anggaran 2009. Lampiran I.

Kunwar, R.M. and Bussmann, R.W., 2006. Ficus (Fig) species in Nepal: A review of diversity and indigenous uses. Lyonia, 11(1), pp. 85–97.

Lansky, E.P. and Paavilainen, H.M., 2011. Figs: The genus Ficus: Traditional herbal medicines for modern times. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Florida, USA.

Lee, S.H., Ng, A.B.C., Ong, K.H., O'Dempsey, T. and Tan, H.T.W., 2013. The status and distribution of Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae) in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 6, pp. 85–90.

OECD., 2002. Test No. 420: Acute Oral Toxicity - Fixed Dose Procedure. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. Section 4. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Publishing. Paris. DOI: 10.1787/9789264070943-en.

_____. 2008. Test No. 407: Repeated Dose 28-day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents. OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. Section 4. The Organisation for

Economic Co-operation and Development. OECD Publishing. Paris. DOI: 10.1787/9789264070684-en.

Pagana, K.D. and Pagana, T.J., 2014. Mosby’s manual of diagnostic and laboratory tests. 5th ed. Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Missouri, USA.

Parasuraman, S., 2011. Toxicological screening. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics, 2(2), pp. 74–79. DOI: 10.4103/0976-500X.81895

Slik, J.W.F., 2009. Plants of Southeast Asia. http://www.asianplant.net/Moraceae/Ficus_ hispida.htm

(Accessed 25 Juli 2020).

Suckow, M.A., Weisbroth, S.H. and Franklin C.L., 2006. The Laboratory Rat. American College of laboratory Animal Medicine Series. Elsevier Academic Press. Burlington, Massachusetts, USA.

Walum, E., 1998. Acute oral toxicity. Environ Health Perspect, 106(Suppl 2), pp. 497–503. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.98106497

Whishaw, I.Q., Haun, F. and Kolb, B., 1999. Analysis of

behavior in laboratory rodents. In: Windhorst, U. and H. Johansson (Eds). 1999. Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Weiss, D.J. and Wardrop, K.J., 2010. Schalm's Veterinary

Hematology. 6th edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Ames, Iowa. USA.

Wira, D.W., Mardawati, E., Djali, M. and Balia, R.L., 2020. The

characterization of Ficus lyrata Warb fruit extract and the effect on toxicity, physicochemical, and microbiology properties of chicken carcass. International Journal on Advanced Science,

Engineering and Information Technology, 10(1), pp. 362–367. DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.10.1.9770


  • There are currently no refbacks.