FITOKIMIA DAN FARMAKOLOGI CENDANA (Santalum album L.)

Andria Agusta, Yuliasri Jamal
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Abstract

Dalam peradaban timur, cendana telah digunakan secara tradisional semenjak 4000 tahun yang Ialu. Minyak atsiri yang diperoleh dari kayu cendana digunakan dalam upacara keagamaan dan sebagai obat-obatan. Dalam kebudayaan barat, cendana hanya digunakan sebagai bahan parfum kelas utama. Bam setelah tahun 1920-an, sejalan dengan perkembangan aromaterapi, bangsa barat mulai memanfaatkan cendana sebagai bahan obat-obatan. Minyak atsiri adalah substansi kimia yang membuat cendana menjadi berharga, baik secara ekonomi, bahan obat dan bahan parfum. Setiap bagian tumbuhan cendana memiliki kandungan minyak atsiri yang bervariasi. Bagian akar memiliki kandungan minyak tertinggi, yaitu 10 %, kemudian diikuti oleh bagian teras batang (4-8 %) dan ranting (2-4 %). Delapan puluh sampai 90% dari minyak cendana terdiri dari senyawa santalol dengan isomer a-santalol dan p-santalol sebagai komponen utama. Dalam perdagangan intemasional, minyak cendana kelas satu haruslah mengandung santalol minimal 90% dari kandungan total minyaknya. Dalam aromaterapi minyak cendana dikenal sebagai salah satu bahan alami yang berkhasiat sebagai sedatif, relaksasi dan mengatasi kasus insomnia serta serangan asma. Laporan terakhir juga menyebutkan bahwa minyak cendana bersifat menghalangi efek karsinogenik dari zat kimia. Alpha-santalol sebagai komponen utama minyak cendana dapat mengurangi kasus papiloma (tumor kulit) sebesar 32 %.

Keywords

Santalaceae, Santalum album, minyak atsiri, fitokimia, farmakologi, biosintesis, santalol.

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References

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