Woro A Noerdjito, Fuminori Ito, Koji Nakamura
| Abstract views: 377 | PDF views: 761


Ants are of high density on the host plant of golden tortoise beetle, Ipomoea carnea, and are being attracted by extrafloral nectaries on petiols.They are important predators of immature stages (eggs, larvae and pupae) of the beetles.The experiment was aimed to know how the golden tortoise beetles defense themselves against ants on I. carnea.The results indicated that golden tortoise beetle,both larvae and adults showed odd habits.They have a specific external organ, a protective camouflage with excreta of the larvae and oviposition strategy.The ant-beetle interaction on the host plants are discussed.


Aspidomorpha sanctaecrucis, Ipomoea carnea, pertahanan diri/self defense, Oecophylla smaragdina dan Dolichoderus thoracicus.

Full Text:



Banks CJ. 1962. Effects of the ant Lasius niger (L.) on insects preying on small populations of Aphid fabae Scop, on bean plants. Annals of Applied Biology 60, 669-679.

Beattie AJ. 1985. The evolutionary ecology of antplant mutualistis. 182 pp. Cambridge University Press. Bently BL. 1977. The protectitive function of ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae). Journal of Ecology 65, 27-38.

Eishner T, Tassell E and Carrel JE. 1967. Defensive use of "fecal shield" by a beetle larva. Science 158, 1471-1473.

Elias TS. 1983. Extrafloral nectaries: Their structure and distribution. Dalam: The Biology of Nectaries, ed. Bently BL and Elias TS, 174-203.

GroffGW and Howard CW 1925. The cultured citrus of South China. Lingnan Science Journal, 108-114.

Kalshoven LGE. 1981. (Revised and translated by P.A. Van Der Laan). Pests of crops in Indonesia. PT Ichtiar Baru Van Hoove, Jakarta.

Keeler KH. 1977. The extrafloral nectaries of Ipomoea carnea (Convolvulaceae). American Journal of Botany 64, 1182-1188.

Kennedy JS and Stroyan HLG. 1959. Biology of Aphids. Annual Review of Entomology 4, 139-60.

Kennedy JS and Fosbrooke IHM, 1972. The plant in the life of an aphiod. Dalam: Insect-Plant Relatiopnship, ed. H.W. van Emden, pp. 129-140. Blackwell Scientific Publication. Oxford.

Llewellyn M, Rashid R and Leckstein P. 1974. The ecological energetic of the willow aphid Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin); honeydew production. Journal of Animal Ecology 43, 19-29.

Noerdjito WA. 1990. Mengenal berbagai stadia enam jenis kumbang Cassidinae. Prosiding Seminar Biologi Dasar I, 113-124. Puslitbang Biologi-LIPI.

Olmstead KL and Denno FR. 1992. Cost of shield defence for tortoise beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Ecological Entomology 17, 237-243.

Soysa SW. 1940. Orchids and ant. Oschidologia zeylanica 7, 88.

Way MJ. 1953. The relatinship between certain ant species with particular reference to the biological control of the coreid Therapus sp. Bull, of Ent. Research 45, 669-69.


  • There are currently no refbacks.