PERTUMBUHAN, SINTASAN DAN PRODUKSI IKAN NILA MERAH (Oreochromis niloticus) YANG DIBERI KOMBINASI PAKAN KOMERSIL DAN AMPAS TAHU HASIL FERMENTASI

Hidayat Suryanto Suwoyo, Sri Redjeki Hesti Mulyaningrum, Rachman Syah
| Abstract views: 250 | PDF views: 198

Abstract

The study aimed to evaluate the combination between commercial feed and fermented tofu waste feeding for growth, survival rate and production of red Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in pond. The study was conducted in Experimental Pond Installation of Research Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, Maros, South Sulawesi, using eight ponds with 2,500 m2 in size. Red Tilapia fingerlings (±8 cm in length) were reared for 112 days with 1 individu/m2 of stocking density. The feeding treatments were of 100% commercial feed (A), 75% commercial feed + 25% fermented tofu waste (B), 50% commercial feed + 50% fermented tofu waste (C), and 25% commercial feed + 75% fermented tofu waste (D). Feeding frequency was given twice a day using concentration 10% of biomass weight in the first month, and decreased by 3% of biomass weight in the fourth month. Experimental was designed by a completely randomized designed consisted of four treatments and two replications for each treatment. Observed variables were growth, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, production, and water quality. Present study indicated that different levels of combination of commercial feed and fermented tofu waste had significant effect on growth (P<0.05), but did not have significant effect on survival rate, production, and feed conversion ratio (P>0.05). Feeding by combination of 75% commercial feed + 25% fermented tofu waste could be utilized optimally by Tilapia. During experiment, pond water quality was in conducive condition to support the growth and survival rate of red Tilapia.

Keywords

fermented tofu waste, tilapia, feed, growth

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abu Hena, Md., Kamal, M. and Graham, C.M., 2005. Salinity tolerance in superior genotypes of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and their hybrids. Aquaculture, 247, 189–201.

Abou-Akkada, A.R., Al Sagheer, F.M., Nour, A.M. and Omar, E., 1997. Effect of protein level and stocking density on growth performance, feed utilization and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to infection against Aeromonas septicemia (Aeromonas hydrophila). In: Tacon, A.G.J., Basurco. B. eds. Feeding tomorrow's fish. CIHEAM, Zaragoza. p. 67–77.

Affandi, R. dan Tang, U.M.,2002. Fisiologi Hewan Air. Penerbit Universitas Riau Press. Pekanbaru. p. 221.

Al-Ahmed, A.A., 2002. Tilapia culture in Kuwait. Global Aquaculture Advocates, 5, p. 31.

Anggraeni, D.N. dan Rahmiati., 2016. Pemanfaatan ampas tahu sebagai pakan ikan lele (Clarias batrachus) organik. Biogenesis, 4(1), pp. 53–57.

Bahnasawy, M.H., El-Ghobashy, A.E. and Abdel-Hakim, N.F., 2009. Culture of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a recirculating water system using different protein levels. Egyptian Journal Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 13(2), pp. 1–15.

Boyd, C.E., 1982. Water Quality Management for Pond Fish Culture. Amsterdam, Elsevier, Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, 9, p. 318.

Brotowijoyo, M.D., Tribawono, D.J. dan Mulbyantoro, E., 1995. Pengantar Lingkungan Perairan dan Budidaya Air. Penerbit Liberty, Yogyakarta. p. 259.

Caldini, N.N., Rebouças, V.T., Cavalcante, D.H., Martins, R. and do Carmo e Sá,M.V., 2011. Water quality and Nile tilapia growth performance under different feeding schedules. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences Maringá, 33(4), pp. 427–430.

Chowdhury, M.M.R., Shahjahan, M., Rahman, M.S. and Islam, M.S., 2008. Duckweed (Lemna minor) as supplementary feed in monoculture of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 3(1), pp. 54–59.

Choudhary, H.R, Sharma, B.K, Uppadhyay, B. and Sharma, S.K., 2017. Effect of different protein levels on growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 5(3), pp. 480–484.

Cortez-Jacinto, E.H., Villarreal-Colmenares, L.E., Cruz-Suarez, R., Civera-Cerecedo, H., Soria, N. and Hernandes- Llamas, A., 2005. Effect of different dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and survival of juvenile Australia Red Claw Crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus). Aquaculture nutrition, 11, pp. 283–291.

Effendie, M.I., 1997. Biologi Perikanan. Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama. Yogyakarta. p.163.

Effendi, H., 2003. Telaah Kualitas Air Bagi Pengelolaan Sumber Daya dan Lingkungan Perairan. Kanisius. Yogyakarta. p. 258.

El-Sayed, A.F., 2006. Tilapia culture in salt water: envionmental requirements, nutritional implications and economic potentials. VII Symposium International De Nutricions.Mexico, pp. 96–106.

El-Sherif, M.S. and El-Feky, A.M.I., 2008. Effect of ammonia on Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) performance and some hematological and histological measures. In Elghobashy, H., Fitzsimmons, K., Diab, A. S. eds. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Cairo, Egypt, October 12-14, 2008, pp. 513–530.

El-Sherif, M.S. and El-Feky, A.M.I., 2009. Performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. II. Influence of different water temperatures. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11, pp. 301–305.

El Zaeem, S.Y., Ahmed. M.M.M., Salama, M.E. and Maremie, H.A.E., 2012. Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads. African journal of Biotechnology, 10(4), pp. 684–685.

FAO. 1999. Cultured aquatic species information programme, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. p. 12.

Felix, M.L.G., Velazquez, M.P., Villalba, A.V.G., Cerecedo, R.C., Ezquerra, J.M. and Bores, E.G., 2010. Tailoring a diet for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Northwest Mexico. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 18(5), pp. 674–681.

Ferraris, R.P., Estepa, F.D.P., Ladja, J.M. and De Jesus, E.G., 1986. Effect of salinity on the osmotic, chlorine, total protein, and calcium concentration in the hemolymp of the prawn, Penaeus monodon Fabricus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A Physiology, 83(4), pp. 701–708.

Haetami, K., Susangka, I. dan Maulina, I., 2006. Suplementasi asam amino pada pelet yang mengandung silase ampas tahu dan implikasinya terhadap pertumbuhan benih ikan nila gift (Oreochromis niloticus). Laporan Penelitian. Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan. Universitas Padjadjaran. Bandung. p. 33.

Hanif, S., Yuniarti, T., Rahmi, L. dan Suroso., 2007. Uji performansi benih nila merah asal Jawa Tengah dan Yogyakarta. Jurnal Budidaya Air Tawar, 4(1), pp. 32–38.

Harris, E., 2006. Akuakultur berbasis “trophic level”: Revitalisasi untuk ketahanan pangan, daya saing ekspor dan kelestarian lingkungan. Orasi Ilmiah Guru Besar Tetap Ilmu Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Institut Pertanian Bogor. p. 65.

Hattinggh, M.A., Alexander, A, Meijering, I, Van Reenan, C.A. and Dicks, L.M.T., 2014. Malting of barley with combinations of L.plantarum, A. niger, Tricoderma reesei, R. oligosporus and Geothrichum candidum to enhance malt quality. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 173, pp. 36–40.

Hernaman, I., Hidayat, R. dan Mansyur., 2005. Pengaruh penggunaan molase dalam pembuatan silase campuran ampas tahu dan pucuk tebu kering terhadap nilai pH dan komposisi zat-zat makanannya. Jurnal Ilmu Ternak, 2 (2), pp. 94–99.

Hidayat, N., Padaga, M.C. dan Suhartini, S., 2006. Mikrobiologi Industri. Penerbit Andi.Yogyakarta.

Hutagalung, H.P., Deddy, S. dan Hadi, R., 1997. Metode Analisis Air Laut, Sedimen, dan Biota. Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. Jakarta. p. 35.

Kamaruddin, Muslimin, Usman dan Laining, A., 2013a. Pemanfaatan Beberapa Bahan Baku Lokal dalam Pakan Pembesaran Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei). Dalam: Isnansetyo, A., Husni, A., Djumanto., Rachmawati, N., Widaningroem, R., Rustadi., Suadi. dan Ustadi. eds. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tahunan X Hasil Penelitian Kelautan dan Perikanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta, 31 Agustus 2013: pPN08, pp. 1–5.

Kamaruddin, Suwoyo, H.S. dan Made, H., 2013b. Pemanfaatan Ampas Tahu yang Telah Difermentasi Menggunakan Ragi Tempe Terhadap Kecernaan Pakan pada Ikan Nila Oreochromis niloticis. Dalam: Sudrajat, A., Masengi, S., Nainggola, C., Raharjo, P., dan Sipahutar, Y.S. eds. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Perikanan Indonesia, 21–22 November 2013. Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan, Jakarta. pp. 153–157.

Laining, A., Usman and Syah, R., 2017. Nutritive value copra cake meal fermented with Rhizopus spp. and its use as a protein source in practical diets for rabbitfish (Siganus javus). Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 29, (3-4), pp. 307–321.

Lestari, S., 2001. Pengaruh Kadar Ampas Tahu yang Difermentasi terhadap Efisiensi Pakan dan Pertumbuhan Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio). Skripsi. Program Studi Budidaya Perairan, Fakultas Perikanan dan ilmu Kelautan. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.

Marlina, N. dan Askar, S., 2004. Komposisi Kimia beberapa Bahan Limbah Pertanian dan Industri Pengolahan Hasil Pertanian. Prosiding Temu Teknis Nasional Tenaga Fungsional Pertanian. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan, pp. 99–103.

Meagung, W.M.W., 2000. Karakterisasi dan Pengelolaan Residu Bahan Organik pada Dasar Tambak Udang Intensif. Disertasi. Program Pasacasarjana Universitas Hasanuddin. Makassar. pp.128.

Melati, I., Azwar, Z.I. dan Kurniasih, T., 2010. Pemanfaatan ampas tahu terfermentasi sebagai substritusi tepung kedelai dalam formulasi pakan ikan patin. Dalam Sudrajat, A., Azwar, Z.I., Supriyadi, H., Rachmansyah., Sumiarsa, G.S., Kristanto, A.H., Imro., Parenrengi, A., Insan, I. dan Kusrini, E. eds. Prosiding Forum Inovasi Teknologi Akuakultur 2010. pp. 713–719.

Mjoun, K., Rosentrater, K.A. and Brown, M.L., 2010. Tilapia: Environmental Biology and Nutritional Requirements. North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory, USDA-Agricultural Research Service and, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, South Dakota State University. FS 963-02.

Muin, H, Taufek, N.M, Kamarudin, M.S. and Razak S.A., 2016. Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) fed with different levels of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) maggot meal diet. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 16(2), pp. 567–577.

Obirikorang, K.A, Amisah, S. and Skov, P.V., 2016. Growth performance, feed utilization and sensory characteristics of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus fed diets with high inclusion levels of copra meal. Journal of Animal Research and Nutrition. 1(4), pp.18. DOI: 10.21767/2572-5459.100018

Popma, T. and Masser, M., 1999. Tilapia, Life History and Biology. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, SRAC Publication No. 283. United States Department of Agriculture. pp. 4.

Pulungan, H., Van Eys, J.E. dan Rangkuti, M., 1984. Penggunaan ampas tahu sebagai makanan tambahan pada domba lepas sapi yang memperoleh rumput lapangan. Ilmu dan Peternakan, 1(7), pp. 331–335.

Robisalmi, A., Setyawan, P. dan Gunadi, B., 2015. Evaluasi Performa Pertumbuhan Ikan Nila Merah Hasil Pemijahan Induk F1 Terseleksi dan Non Seleksi di Perairan Payau. Dalam: Sugama, K., Kristanto, A., Radiarta, I.N, Priono, B, Insan, I, Dewi, R.R.S.P.S, Gardenia, L eds. Prosiding Forum Inovasi Teknologi Akuakultur 2015. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan Budidaya. Jakarta. pp. 59–68.

Robisalmi, A., Setyawan, P. dan Gunadi, B., 2017. Efek nisbah kelamin jantan dan betina yang berbeda terhadap kinerja pertumbuhan yuwana ikan nila biru, Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864). Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 17(1), pp. 55–65.

Ross, L.G., 2000. Environmental Physiology and Energetics. In: Beveridge, M.C.M., McAndrew, B.J. eds. Tilapias: Biology and Exploitation, Fish and Fisheries Series 25, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 89–128.

Samadar, A. and Kaviraj. A., 2014. Processing of fish offal waste through fermentation utilizing whey as inoculum. International Journal recycle Organic Waste Agriculture, 3(1), pp, 1–8. Doi.10.1007/s40093-014-0045-3.

Schulz, C., Knaus,U., Wirth, M. and Rennert, B., 2005. Effect of varying dietary fatty acid profileon growth performance, fatty acid, body and tissue composition of juvenile pike perch (Sander lucioperca). Aquaculture Nutrition, 11, pp. 403–413.

Setyadi,I, Setiadharma,T. dan Wibawa,G.S., 2014.Pengamatan Produksi Calon Induk Bandeng, Chanos chanos Hasil Seleksi di Tambak. Dalam: Sugama, K., Kusnendar, E., Rachmansyah., Giri, I.N.A., Yuhana, M., Kristanto, A.H., Imron, Radiarta, I.N. dan Dewi, R.R.S.P.S .eds. Prosiding Forum Inovasi Teknologi Akuakultur. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan Budidaya. Jakarta. pp. 91–975.

Setyawan, P. Robisalmi, A. dan Dewi, R.R.S.P.S., 2015. Evaluasi Pertumbuhan dan Toleransi Salinitas Lima Strain Ikan Nila pada Tambak Bersalinitas 25-30 g/L Dalam: Sugama, K., Kristanto, A., Radiarta, I.N, Priono, B, Insan, I, Dewi, R.R.S.P.S, Gardenia, L eds. Prosiding Forum Inovasi Teknologi Akuakultur 2015.Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan Budidaya. Jakarta. pp. 103–109.

Solomon,. S.G. and Okomoda.V.T., 2012. Growth performance of Oreochromis niloticusfed duckweed (Lemna minor) based diets Iin outdoor hapas. International Journal of Research in Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2(4), pp. 61–65.

Sucipto, A., 2005. Broodstock Management Ikan Mas dan Nila. Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan. Direktorat Jenderal Perikanan Budidaya. Balai Budidaya Air Tawar. Sukabumi. pp. 19.

Suresh, A.V. and. Lin, C.K., 1992. Tilapia culture in saline water: a review. Aquaculture, 106, pp. 201–226.

Suryaningrum, L.H., Mulyasari dan Samsudin, R., 2017. Pengaruh Penambahan Gliserol pada Pakan terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Kelangsungan Hidup Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus). Berita Biologi, 16(2), pp. 157–165.

Suwoyo, H.S. dan Mangampa, M., 2009. Pemanfaatan Ampas Tahu Sebagai Pakan Alternatif pada Pemeliharaan Benih Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei). Dalam: Samsuddin,S., Sipahutar, Y.H., Safurrijal, Basith,A., Nurbani., S.Z.,Suharto, Siregar,A.N., Rahardjo, S., Surya, R. dan Sanofa, V. eds. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Perikanan 2009. Teknologi Budidaya Perikanan. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat. Sekolah Tinggi Perikanan, Jakarta 3-4 Desember 2009. pp. 117–127.

Suwoyo, H.S. dan M Mangampa., 2010. Aplikasi Fermentasi Ampas Tahu Sebagai Pupuk Organik pada Pendederan Benih Nila Merah (Oreochromis niloticus) dalam Wadah Terkontrol. Dalam: Husni, A., Suadi. dan Istiqomah, I. (eds). Prosiding Seminar Nasional Tahunan VII Hasil Penelitian Perikanan dan Kelautan. Jurusan Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan. Fakultas Pertanian. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta. PN. pp.1–9.

Suwoyo, H.S., Mulyaningrum, S.R.H. dan Mangampa, M., 2012. Pendederan Benih Nila Merah (Oreochromis niloticus) dengan Pemberian Kombinasi Pakan Berbeda. Dalam: Taufiqurohman, M., Winarno, A. dan Prayogi, U. (eds) Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kelautan VIII Tahun 2012. Universitas Hangtuah. Surabaya. B. pp. 24–34.

Tanwiriah, W., Garnida, D. dan Asmara, I.Y., 2007. Pengaruh Tingkat Pemberian Ampas Tahu dalam Ransum Terhadap Performans Entok (Muscovy duck) pada Periode Pertumbuhan. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknologi Peternakan dan Veteriner. Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Padjadjaran. Bandung. pp. 615-621.

Takeuchi, T., 1988. Laboratory Work-Chemical Evaluation of Dietary Nutrients. In: Watanabe T.editor. Fish Nutrition and Mariculture. Tokyo: Departemen of Aquatic Bioscience,University of Fisheries, pp. 179–233.

Usman, Laining, A., dan Kamaruddin., 2014. Fermentation of copra cake meal using Rhizopus sp and its utilization for grow-out of milkfish diet cultured in pond. Journal of Aquaculture Research, 9(3), pp. 427–437.

Usman, Kamaruddin, Laining, A. dan Muslimin., 2015. Pemanfaatan Ampas Tahu dalam Pakan Pembesaran Ikan Beronang, Siganus guttatus. Dalam: Nadiarti, Umar., M.T., La Nafie, Y.A., dan Inaku, D.M. eds. Prosiding Simposium Nasional Kelautan dan Perikanan II, Universitas Hasanuddin. Makassar. pp. 278–284.

Yunizal., 1986. Pengaruh Pengolahan Silase Ampas Tahu Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ayam Broiler. Tesis. Program Pascasarjana. Institut Pertanian Bogor.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.